Вторник, 17 Апрель 2018 08:22

Development of intraorganic transylumination and ultrasound monitoring in rheumatoid arthritis

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УДК: 616.72-002.77

1Seagal Z.M., 2Surnina O.V., 1Brindin V.V., 1Seagal S.Z.

1 Federal state budget educational institution of the higher education "Izhevsk state medical academy" ministry of health of the

Russian Federation, Address: Russia, Udmurt republic, Ishevsk, Kommunarov Street, 281, 426033


Development of intraorganic transylumination and ultrasound monitoring in rheumatoid arthritis

 

Resume. Background. Nowadays about 4% of the world's population suffers from joint diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs 0.5-1% of the total population, in Russia it founds in approximately 0.6% of the population. 

 

Keywords: ultrasound, knee joint, rheumatoid arthritis, transillumination optometry, optical density.

Contact person:

Olga Vladimirovna Surnina

Candidate of Medicine of Medical Science, docent of Operative Surgery and Topographic anatomy, Izhevsk State

Medical Academy; head of department of ultrasonic diagnosis in Budgetary Institution of Health “Repablican Clinical

Diagnostic Center”. Address: 426034, Russia, Izhevsk, Kommunarov str. 281;

 426000, Russia, Izhevsk, Lenin str. 87b. Contactphone: (3412) 68-38-36. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.


About 4% of the world's population suffer from joint diseases in the modern world. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occupies the leading position among inflammatory joint diseases and is found in all countries and among all the peoples of the world at approximately 0.5-1% of the total population, in Russia it founds in approximately 0.6% of the population. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis is common among various age groups, but mostly affects women of active age (women get rheumatoid arthritis 3 times more often than men). The annual incidence of new cases of RA is about 0.02% [3,11]. According to the data of multi- center researches the official number of registered patients does not reflect the picture of the prevalence of RA in full. This discrepancy is due to late treatment of patients to the doctor, the difficulty of diagnosing initial stages of the disease, the inadequacy of the clinical examination, the course of the disease and its monitoring [1]. It is important to carry out diagnostics in the early stages because treatment will be more effective [2,22,24.30]. More commonly used diagnostic cri- teria for the diagnosis of RA are crite- ria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987, which include a complex of clinical and laboratory and radiographic manifestations of the disease [8,3,9,17,15]. А large number of methods for diagnosing joint diseases are currently available: X-ray examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), arthroscopy, radionuclide methods, arthrocentesis, ultrasound. The comparative characteristics of these research methods are presented in the following table (Table 1)


X-ray examination has shortcom- ings in the diagnosis of joint damage in RA, such as: radiation load, the in- ability to conduct frequent researches and detect signs of the disease no earlier than 3-6 months from the onset of the disease. Lesions of the tendon-ligamentous apparatus are not detected by the X-ray method [4,17,27]. Short-coming of MRI is the duration and complexity of calculating the volume of synovial fluid and optical density. Carrying out research using MRI is inaccessible and expensive. There are a number of contraindications, for example, the presence of large metal implants, the presence of pacemaker,the first trimester of pregnancy [17,19]. The method of asseing the activity of RA of knee joints consists in ultrasound examination and evaluation of synovial effusion and proliferation of the synovial membrane [21,23]. Various authors determined the sensibility, specificity and reliability of ultrasound (Table 2).

A laboratory analysis of the synovial effusion joint obtained at intraar- ticular puncture are performed to confirm the results of various diagnostic studies [8,13]. Changes in the indices are of low accuracy because they can be on the background of other inflammatory diseases. Disadvantages of arthrocentesis is the invasiveness of the method, the possibility of purulent infection with staphylococcal and streptococcal infection, which will transfer to inflam- mation, abscessing and infection of the knee joint, as well as acute septic arthritis [3]. The authors consider it necessary to use transillumination optometry which currently receives little attention to clarify the nature of the process. This method is coordi- nated to record changes in the pulse and non-pulse level of the optical density of various organs sites.

 Aim: development of a new clinical method for diagnosing and preventing complications of rheumatoid arthritis.

 Materials and methods. The work is based on the analysis of the results of examination of healthy people and patients with joint pathology. Thesubjects were divided into two groups: the comparison group (without the pathology of the joints) and the main group (patients with rheumatoid arthritis). In all groups, the comparability of healthy and sick people by sex and age was observed (52.2 ± 8.1 years). A total of 850 people participated in the study. Patients were did CT, MRI, radiography, arthrocentesis of joints, ultrasound and optometry according to the method of Z.M. Seagal. The study was carried out on an ultrasonic scanner with a 7.5 MHz -millimeter linear scan sensor.Optometry for recording parameters of hemodynamics was carried out with the help of the device and the method Z.M.Seagal [16]. Plusop- tometry was carried out by applying an optocoupler to the area under study with a breath-holding of the pa- tient. Projection suprapatellar bursa corresponds superolateral access. Place the positioning of the detector and pathfinder is located 1 centimeter proximal and lateral to the upper pole of the patella.

Statistical processing of the data was performed using the software package Microsoft Excel 2010. The average values of amounts of synovial fluid, optical density and amplitude of pulse oscillations in a suprapatellar bursa and lateral synovial recess in normal and with rheumatoid arthritis were determinated. X±dx, y±dy are mean values, Sx, Sy are standard errors, t is a reliability, p is a level of significance (probability of error), Δ± dΔ are lower and upper confidence limits, S∆ is a standard deviation. The differences between the samples were estimated using the Student's t-test, calculated as the difference in the mean values divided by the sum of the error squares: if t<2, p>0,05 and the differences are not statisti- cally significant and if t> 2 → p <0.05 and the differences are statistically significant. The conclusion based on the results of the analysis is that the differences in the studied indices of the comparison group and the main group are reliable.

Results. During the ultrasound, the amount of synovial fluid in the suprapatellar bursa and the bursa of the lat- eral inversion in the observation and comparison groups was determined, both in the largest topographic region for the accumulation of synovial fluid and for the possibility of ultrasound echolocation. (Table 3.4)

In this case, the amount of synovial fluid in both the suprapatellar bursa and the bursa of the lateral recess is found at times more than in norm and with other pathological changes. With transillumination optometry, the optical density was determined (Table 5,6) in norm and pathology. Research of the optical density of pa-rarticular regions was also performed in a suprapatellar bursa and a bursa of lateral recess after visualization of them in anultrasonography. In the projection of the location of the fluid, according to ultrasound, optocoupler of the pulso-optometer was applied to the skin of the pararticular regions to obtain the values of the optical density of paraarticular tissues of the knee joint in healthy patients and in patients with RA. With RA, the optical density in the suprapatellar bursa is 2.7   times less than in norm (0,58) (Ta- ble 5). And 2 times less than normal in a bursa of lateral recess. (Table 6)

The research of hemodynamics of pararticular regions in this research was also carried out in a suprapatellar bursa and a bursa of lateral recess after visualization of it under ultrasonography.Inthe projection of the location of the fluid, according to ultrasound, optocouplerpulso-optometer was applied to the skin of the pararticular regions to obtain the APO para- rticular tissue values of the knee joint in healthy patients, in patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA )[12]. APO in the suprapatellar bag is 13 times higher than the norm (3,29 ± 4,90), and in the bag of the lateral curvature it is 7 times.

In patients with rheumatoid arthri- tis, the ultrasonographyof the knee joint shows an increase in the amount of synovial fluid, compared with the norm, both in the bursa of the lat- eral recess and in the suprapatellar bursa. Also in both bursae, a decrease in the optical density and an increase in the amplitude of the pulse oscillations are found in comparison with the normal indices. On the basis of the data obtained, the authors pro- posed a method for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint, Patent № 2633631 "A method for di- agnosing rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint." This method of diagnos- ing rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint is performed by ultrasonic echo- location of anatomical structures. It involves determining the amount of synovial fluid and is characterized in that the value of the optical density of the knee tissue and the amplitude of the pulse oscillations in the supra- patellar bursa are additionally meas- ured. With synovial fluid content of 55.81 ml and above (2-4 ml), an optical density of 0.56 and below (0,58), the amplitude of pulse oscillations of 13.45 mm and above (3,29 ± 4,90 мм) is diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis" [20]. To assess the effectiveness of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, the authors proposed a "Method for controlling the effectiveness of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis." Patent application № 2017121780. A method for predicting the effectiveness of treating rheumatoid arthritis, including topical monitoring of paraarticular regions, characterized in that the effectiveness of treatment is determined in the bag of lateral curvature of the knee by the change in the optical density of the knee joint tissues and the amplitude of pulse oscillations with ultrasound navigation after drug treatment and therapeutic exercise with an interval of 10 days [18].

 Discussion. The development of RA is characterized by a significant increase in synovial fluid in all synovial bags and knee joints with the development of bursitis. In RA, due to the increase in liquid and flocs present in this liquid, the optical density decreases. It is known that the dynamics of manifestations of RA is closely related to changes in blood flow. With inflammation, the sensitivity of the vessels to the action of vasoconstrictor stimulus decreases, therefore, the blood filling of the affected organ increases, and the walls of the vessels are sclerosed, so the APO will be increased. The change in hemodynamics by other well-known methods does not have reliable quantitative indices [6,28]. In this article, statistical values with echographic data are presented, therefore, one can judge the reliability of the results (Table 9).

The undoubted advantage of the claimed diagnostic technique is an increase in the level of safety, due to means of measuring the amount of synovial fluid, optical density and amplitude of pulse oscillations in the suprapatellar bursa. The advantage of the claimed method is also that it is not invasive and low traumatic. The undisputed advantage of the claimed method is the greater availability of ultrasound diagnostics with respect to computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a smaller number of contraindications to the use of ultrasound diagnostics. This method of determining the optical density, taking into account the locality of the process, creates con- ditions for early warning, as a con- sequence, reducing the frequency of their complications. Transillumination optometry and ultrasound monitoring takes into account all the shortcomings of the above methods and is a comprehensive research method. The ultrasound method allows to timely detect the foci of pathological processes that occur with rheumatoid arthritis. With the help of a specific functional technique of transillumi- nation optometry, the sensitivity and reliability of ultrasound diagnostics can be increased. The undoubted advantage of the claimed method is an increase in the accuracy of diagnosics by specifying concrete quantitative indices. The advantage of the claimed method is also that it is not invasive and low traumatic.With the development of inflammation, the most accurate will be the indices of changes in hemodynamics and optical density. Changes in functional indices offer the oppotrtunity of the appointment of timely treatment depending on the stage of the process.

 Conclusions.

1.   The development of intraorganic transillumination monitoring in rheumatoid arthritis has a practical importance in the reliable differential diagnosis of pathologies and in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment. This method is atraumatic, reliable and informative.

2.   As a specific signs of the disease and the criteria for the effectiveness of treatment can be used: the amount of synovial fluid, the indications of optical density and the amplitude of pulse oscillations.


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